Miscellaneous notes about Usenet hierarchies

This page is intended to be updated when someone shares valuable information to add, either by posting suggestions of additions to the news.admin.hierarchies newsgroup, or by opening an issue. This page is otherwise no longer being actively updated by anyone as currently no one has the time to follow the state of each hierarchy. It contains information about the handling of particular hierarchies. To aid in searching for a particular entry, all top-level names are flush left with ".*" appended.

Most of these notes were written by tale when he was maintaining the control message archive and active newsgroup database. The last comprehensive work on maintaining it probably stopped somewhat earlier. Most of the information here dates from the 1990s.

Russ Allbery have sometimes added a few additional notes since, when he chose not to add a hierarchy to the public list for some reason. A few Usenet folks have also contributed to additional details for a few hierarchies.

The hierarchies listed in the current control.ctl file and the old Master List of Newsgroup Hierarchies have been combined into a merged list of hierarchies.

Miscellaneous notes

In the following notes about various hierarchies, "It should be removed," is shorthand for, "It should be removed from your local list of active groups unless you have some special need for having it, such as a private local hierarchy by the same name."

Appears to be a private hierarchy for an Australian ISP. See <http://www.acay.com.au/member.htm>.
It is not clear to tale what the status of this hierarchy is. His latest messages to Sander van Minnen <mattew@pobox.org.sg> (or <mattew@hacktic.nl>) asking for more information regarding what the hierarchy is about and what its current groups are, were not answered. It is, however, listed in the ISC active file based on the list of groups he got in January 1997, and a half-dozen newgroup messages since then. Lately, the USENET Config Files FAQ's version of control.ctl says that this hierarchy is defunct and people should contact <thijs@kink.xs4all.nl> or <mattew@xs4all.nl> for more information. It should be removed.
Misspelled "alt.ziopino" as "alot.ziopino" in a forged newgroup on 5 Aug 1998. It should be removed.
Forged newgroup for "america.sucks.scotland.rules.we.made.tv" on 13 Sep 1998. It should be removed.
13 Collabra newgroups in Summer of 1998. It should be removed.
This Collabra newgroup was apparently a typo for aus.ads.jobs by <joe_wright@compuware.com> on 10 Jul 1998.
A semi-public hierarchy for discussion of the Beijing Spectrometer, originally coordinated at Stanford University. The hierarchy went idle and was declared defunct in September of 2009. It should be removed.
Tests from Microsoft were escaping around the world. It should be removed.
Gatewayed mailing-lists originating from BITNET (IBM mainframe).
Newgroup for blackbox.doof, apparently a joke, sent worldwide on 25 Jan 1998. There *may* be a legitimate blackbox.* hierarchy (the control message was posted to blackbox.test) but tale have seen no other references to it. Cf. at.blackbox.*.
The Bastard Operator From Hell hierarchy. Feeds of it are restricted to those who can figure out how to get a feed.
Forged newgroup on 29 Dec 1999, apparently without any support of the Bugtraq administrators.
Commercial ClariNet news service which used to deliver traditional newspaper and magazine content using newsgroups.
A newgroup was sent for cny.general, for the Central New York State region, by Will Pierce <willp@dreamscape.com> in May 1998. In January 2000, Mr. Pierce reported to tale that the only group that existed in the hierarchy was cny.general, but it did not propagate very far and received an insignificant amount of traffic. It should be removed.
United States court decisions.
Joke newgroup for cronkite.misc, "Miscellaneous discussion of Walter Cronkite" by <bedwarm@cycperspace.org> (Bobby Tendinitis) in April 1998.
Newgroup for earth.crisis "Discussion of crises on Earth" by Bobby Tendinitis <bedwarm@mail.dotcom.fr> on 21 Oct 1997 without any discussion, support, followup, or other groups in hierarchy.
This hierarchy is defunct since the late 1980s. It stood for "from ARPAnet" to reflect that it was for messages gatewayed from ARPAnet mailing lists into newsgroups. It should be removed.
Newgroup for foad.rant by <abby@foad.org> on 2 Dec 1997; see <ftp://ftp.isc.org/pub/usenet/control/foad/foad.rant>. The hierarchy was apparently stillborn.
This appears to have been some sort of protest against the policies or personalities of fr.*. There were three newgroups in July of 1998 and nothing seems to have come of them.
Regional newsgroups in France. This hierarchy is mostly abandoned. The names of the regions are still the ones before their renaming in 2016.
Apparently an attempt to create alt.god.jesus and alt.god.jesus.holyghost that failed to include the "alt.*" part (the bodies of the messages use the alt prefix), two newgroups were sent in August 1999 and were quickly followed by a half-dozen joke newgroups. It should be removed.
Dutch/English hackers' newsgroups in Netherlands.
Originally for internal use by IBM Corporation (ibm.com) only. The ibm.software.* hierarchy was available via news.software.ibm.com for a while, but was then closed by IBM on 2009-12-31. The ibm.software.* portion of the hierarchy was redistributed to other servers and may still have usage outside of the original IBM source. It is unknown if ibm.* outside of ibm.software.* is still in use inside IBM. ibm.* groups other than ibm.software.* should be removed.
Newgroup for jessica.config on 5 Nov 1997 by <uhclem@usit.net>, apparently as some sort of joke.
This name occurs at many sites for their own local hierarchies. Distributing a hierarchy by this name off of a single server is a very bad idea because of the high likelihood of leakage between the unrelated groups of different sites.
Microsoft does not maintain their hierarchy via Usenet control messages. tale used to receive a list of changes to make every week directly from Microsoft via email.
In the mid-1980s, this was how all moderated newsgroups were identified. The mod.* hierarchy was removed in the Great Renaming in 1986 when support for moderated groups by any name was incorporated into B News. Some people have considered restarting the concept of this hierarchy (which tale personally thinks it is a bad idea), but as yet it has not been done.
A regional hierarchy for the city of Muenster in Germany. The original contact, Lars von Olleschik <lars@von-olleschik.de>, is no longer involved in running the hierarchy. The organization buene.org may still be involved.
This hierarchy is in use as a regional hierarchy for North Carolina but has no active maintainer. Tim Seaver used to manage the hierarchy but said around 2002 that he'd had no dealings with it in over two years and the hierarchy is basically "open to anyone who wants it".
This hierarchy is only meant to be carried by sites that live by a strict set of rules meant to keep down abuse of Usenet and improve the overall quality of groups. See <http://www.usenet2.org/> for more information about this hierarchy.
Robert Dinse <nanook@eskimo.com>, who responded to tale's message sent to <news@eskimo.com> (the sender of the newgroup for openprojects.linpeople), says, "I am trying to find out who did this; it looks to me like someone forged a control message. 'eskimo.com' is not a news server; it's our shell server. Normally, when we create groups, we would have used ctlinnd on the news server and 'eskimo.com' would not have shown up in the path."
This hierarchy used to carry groups about publically available Unix systems, but fell into disuse. It was formally removed for lack of traffic in the summer of 1991. it should be removed.
This hierarchy is for discussion of and within the Greater San Diego Area, California, USA. It was formerly maintained by William Kronert, but he stepped down as hierarchy maintainer and no one else volunteered. It is therefore now frozen, but the existing groups are still in use.
Two different hierarchies co-exist in the same namespace: Slovakian newsgroups, and regional Saskatchewan (Canada) newsgroups.
This hierarchy was for discussion of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It was a local hierarchy that was distributed to various partner sites and hence became semi-public. After a long period of declining usage, it was shut down by SLAC in September 2009. It should be removed.
This hierarchy was for the company that made the StarOffice business suite software. It was renamed to staroffice.* in September 1999, and the old stardivision.* hierarchy should be removed.
This was a German language hierarchy for gatewayed email lists something akin to alt.* in that anyone could create newsgroups in it. The hierarchy is now defunct, having been moved to z-netz.alt.* in a reorganization in 1996. Contact <lutz@jena.thur.de> (Lutz Donnerhacke) and/or <dirk.meyer@dinoex.sub.org> (Dirk Meyer) for more information. See also zer.* in this file. It should be removed.
A pseudo-hierarchy normally used for the propagation of ihave/sendme control messages and test messages. For example, SiteA and SiteB might each have a to.sitea and to.siteb on their machines to facilitate a special kind of news transport mechanism.
This hierarchy was used for internal groups at the University of Maryland. Their internal news server was shut down on 22 Dec 2008 and rmgroups were issued for all groups in this hierarchy. It should be removed.
Originating from Digital VAX network.
Apparently someone who thought a newsgroup name and domain name should be equivalent. Newgroup for <www.wilhelp.com> on 7 Jul 1998.
This was a German language hierarchy for gatewayed email lists like t-netz.*, but was somewhat more structured regarding creation of groups within it. There was a bit of a problem with gateways directing the same articles to both the zer.* hierarchy and the z-netz.* hierarchy, with the resulting Message-ID collisions causing a mess with propagation. The hierarchy is now defunct, having been moved to z-netz.* in a reorganization in 1996. Contact <lutz@jena.thur.de> (Lutz Donnerhacke) and/or <dirk.meyer@dinoex.sub.org> (Dirk Meyer) for more information. See also t-netz.* notes. It should be removed.
This appears to have been a discussion hierarchy for Zippo's news service, a now-defunct organization. It was declared obsolete in a list of hierarchies posted in January 2000 and there has been no subsequent information about it. It should be removed.

Private hierarchies

The following is a list of hierarchies known to be private hierarchies; that is, the administrators in charge of them have specifically requested that they do not wish the hierarchy to appear in the ISC list, and often don't want it to appear anywhere except their own servers.

This hierarchy is for a department at the National Chiao Tung University in Hsinchu, Taiwan. Contact <pcyu@alab.ee.nctu.edu.tw> (Pang-Cheng Yu) for more information.
Private hierarchy for the Australian Public Access Network Association. Contact "Garry R. Ford" <garry@merddyn.apana.org.au> or Dean Hollister <dean@odyssey.apana.org.au> for more information.
This hierarchy is for internal use only by ruhr.de. Contact <admin@ruhr.de> for more information.
Private for the Basel, Switzerland, ISP named Balcab. Contact Matthias Leisi <leisi@gmx.ch> for more information.
For Best Internet Communications (best.net) use only. Contact <news@best.net> for more information.
Private. Newgroups were leaked from hastur.rlyeh.net and starcat.rlyeh.net, two of the peers in the birk.* hierarchy. Contact <birk-admin@ping.uio.no> (Jan Ingvoldstad) for more information.
On 31 May 1998, Chris Malatesta <cmalatesta@borland.com> responded to tale's inquiry about leaked Collabra newgroups for borland.public.* groups with the statement "We do not feed our news server... So I'm confused how you received this...". tale explained about how to read Path header fields, and then asked, "Do I correctly infer from your reply that you do not wish the Borland groups to be available outside of your own server?" Having received no further reply from him, it is tale's assumption that it is intended to be a hierarchy only local to their own news server. You can access the Borland newsgroups via the forums.inprise.com news server, or through <http://www.borland.com/newsgroups/>.
For Capital Area Internet Service (cais.com) use only. Contact <news@cais.com> for more information.
For Worldonline, Inc (worldonline.nl) use only. Contact <newsmaster@worldonline.nl> for more information.
For use by The Internet Company of New Zealand only. Contact <usenet@iconz.co.nz> for more information.
For internal use only by Celestial Haven ISP. Contact <news@chaven.com> for more information.
On 15 Jan 2000, <ralf@IAEhv.nl> (Ralf van Dooren) sent a newgroup for chello.nl.test.test worldwide. It seemed fairly obvious that it was a bogus newgroup not sanctioned by Chello Netherlands admins, but nonetheless tale took the opportunity to enquire of the folks at Chello Netherlands whether the chello.* hierarchy existed as either a private or public hierarchy. To his surprise, Mr. van Dooren replied that he was an employee of Chello at their "abusedesk", and had been investigating some problems with chello.* groups disappearing on their servers. He said that to his knowledge, chello.* is not intended to be carried outside the chello-network.
Four newgroups in July 1998 all had Distribution local header fields that were (obviously) ineffective. All were posted via kerberos.demon.co.uk and had message-ids naming cix.compulink.co.uk. They did not have valid From header fields, though. In May 2001, Sean Purdy <newsmaster@cix.co.uk> reported to tale that the hierarchy is private to cix.co.uk.
For internal use only by CL-Netz. Contact <koordination@cl-netz.de> for more information.
For internal use only at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, per mail from Bruce Gletty, CCSO news manager @uiuc.edu, July 1998. Later informed by <foertsch@ux1.cso.uiuc.edu> that, "any 'cmi' group is owned by prairienet and they need to bless any distribution beyond campus/local ISPs".
For Carnegie-Mellon University use only, per Dan Lovinger <del+@cmu.edu>, CMU Computing Services, August 1994.
Two Collabra newgroups. Curiously, they were from very different domains but with very similar names: csie.bbs.fj and csie.bbs.fj.rec. Much later, on 24 Feb 2000, <jkng@csie.nctu.edu.tw> (NortonNg) sent six newgroups for groups in the hierarchy, and he later reported to tale that it was a mistake and he corrected the configuration.
In September of 1998, 22 Usenet newgroup control messages were sent around the world for groups in the cuhk.* hierarchy by a half-dozen different people in the Engineering Faculty CUHK at cuhk.edu.hk (Hong Kong). Alan S. H. Lam <shlam@ie.cuhk.edu.hk> reported to tale that it was accidental and the hierarchy is private.
In May 1999, <group-admin@deja.com> sent at least 40 newgroup messages around the world that all bore the note, "[...] this is being created for internal use by Deja.com Inc. If you have mistakenly received this control message, please contact <group-admin@deja.com> immediately. And please accept our apologies." Apology accepted.
In February and May 1999, <group-admin@deja.com> sent 6 newgroup messages like those described in deja.* -- internal use, mistake for others to get, apologies, yadda yadda.
For use by Duke University only. Contact <news@newsgate.duke.edu> for more information.
For internal use by the EarthLink ISP only.
Local to shalom.cid-net.de. Contact <news@shalom.cid-net.de> or Daniel Joehrens <news@linux.rz.fh-hannover.de> for more information.
For Furrynet use only. Contact <fur-config@taronga.com> for more information.
For internal use by IBM Corporation (ibm.net) only. Contact <news@ibm.net> for more information.
For Borland's Enterprise products. You can access the inprise.* newsgroups via the forums.inprise.com news server, or through <http://www.borland.com/newsgroups/>.
For the Internet Company of New Zealand. Contact <usenet@iconz.co.nz> for more information.
Local hierarchy for the Committee for Clean Monitors in the Terminal Rooms (yes, that's what tale was told), University of Oslo, Norway. Feeds are restricted. Contact Jan Ingvoldstad <jani@ifi.uio.no> for more information.
For the Manawatu district of New Zealand. Contact <news@manawatu.gen.nz> for more information. Alan Brown, involved in Manawatu Internet Services whose UUCP hub address was manawatu.gen.nz, mailed tale on 5 Feb 1993: "... it's unlikely that you'll ever see any traffic on it - the New Zealand net administration prefers that we don't feed regional distributions through it, and so all manawatu.* groups are blocked from being fed to the net at the manawatu hub."
For Netscape Communications Corp. Contact <bpolk@netscape.com> (Ben Polk) for more information.
For use by Worldonline, Inc (worldonline.nl) only. Contact <newsmaster@worldonline.nl> for more information.
For the National Capital Freenet in Ottawa, Canada. Contact <news@freenet.carleton.ca> for more information.
For use by netINS, Inc, only. Contact <kevin@netins.net> (Kevin Houle) for more information.
For use by Optimum Online only. Matthew Sachs <matthewg@zevils.com> sent a worldwide newgroup for optonline.discuss that he had thought was limited with a local distribution, but it had not been.
Used by both the PlaNet FreeNZ Cooperative in New Zealand and Planet Systems Inc in Tennessee, USA. Contact <office@pl.net> or <news@news.planetc.com> for more information.
For use through Sybase's news server only. Configure your news reader to use forums.powersoft.com as an NNTP server, or access the groups via <http://support.sybase.com/newsgroups/>.
For Prima e.V. in Germany. Contact <admin@prima.ruhr.de> for more information.
For internal use only by the Penn State University in the USA. Contact <barr@math.psu.edu> (Dave Barr) for more information.
For Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, NY. This hierarchy used to be publically available until 1994. Contact <usenet@rpi.edu> for more information.
For use through Sybase's news server only. Configure your news reader to use forums.sybase.com as an NNTP server, or access the groups via <http://support.sybase.com/newsgroups/>.
For Tele Danmark Erhverv (Tele Denmark Internet, tele.dk or tdk.net). Contact <usenet@tdk.net> for more information.
Local hierarchy for technical support personnel at the Department for Informatics, University of Oslo, Norway. Feeds are restricted. Contact Jan Ingvoldstad <jani@ifi.uio.no> for more information.
For the University of Virginia, USA. Contact <usenet@virginia.edu>.
For use by Worldonline, Inc (worldonline.nl) only. Contact <newsmaster@worldonline.nl> for more information. As of 1 Oct 1996, Lennard voor den Dag at worldonline told me, "The hierarchy is available on news.worldonline.nl:119, but is not really interesting for the outside world, and in Dutch only".

Probable accidental leakage

The following is a list of hierarchies that had a newgroup or checkgroups message sent worldwide from them; tale sent the person who issued the control message a query regarding the hierarchy's availability, but received no reply. Therefore tale considered the control message to have been an accidental leakage by someone who didn't really understand what was going on, and the hierarchy is not listed here. There are many many hierarchies that fit into this category, but tale have not had time to go through all his email folders identifying them all to add here. There's also a whole slew of hierarchies that only had Collabra newgroups that he gave up even sending a message to the originator, because he pretty much never received replies from Collabra admins.

The presence of a name in this list generally means that someone, somewhere is probably using the hierarchy name, but its current status is not entirely clear.

On four separate occasions (19 Feb 1998, 2 Jun 1998, 7 Jul 1998 and 6 Dec 1999), tale have sent email inquiring about worldwide newgroup messages for this hierarchy. All but the first time went to <news@news.agora.it>, which is the address on the control messages. The hierarchy is apparently for "Agora - Internet Solution Provider".
Message sent to <news@cs.ait.ac.th> regarding newgroup of ait.language on 17 July 1996.
Message sent to <dounuts@amda.or.jp> (Hiroshi Sawada) regarding newgroup of 7 amda.* groups for the Association of Medical Doctors of Asia in March 1998.
Message sent to <news@cna.archiworld.it> on 25 Jun 1998 and 7 Dec 1999 regarding eleven and 43 newgroups, respectively. Seems to be associated with the non-responsive people who have been doing the agora.* groups.
Message sent to <newsadm@bgtnfc01-news.ops.worldnet.att.net> and <newsadm@worldnett.att.net> regarding newgroup of att.tech-trial.onemail on 15 Sep 1998. As this is the only att.* newgroup from an AT&T domain, it appears that the hierarchy is private.
Four Collabra newgroups from <postmaster@bathspa.ac.uk> in July, 1998.
The only worldwide newgroup for anything in this hierarchy was clearly a test message, sent on 29 Jul 1998 by <jeff@cargill.com> for a group named cargill.me; tale did not even bother asking whether this was meant to be a worldwide group.
Two Collabra newgroups from the cap.ru domain in Autumn, 1997.
A Collabra newgroup from <rknowles_sysop@mhtonline.com> on 27 Dec 1997.
Message sent to <drawtech@corel.ca> on 9 Dec 1997 regarding ten Collabra newgroups. As usual, there was no reply, and seven more Collabra newgroups from the same address were sent during the following week.
Message sent to <jimm@corel.ca> regarding his 28 Collabra messages of the Spring and Summer, 1998.
A batch of newgroups in November 1998 and another in July 1999, both sets from <network-admin@cslab.co.jp>, for a handful of groups intended to be used by the organization "C's Lab, Ltd.".
A Collabra newgroup from <news@moe.cstech.fr> on 20 Nov 1997.
A newgroup for cygnus.project.gdb.future was sent by <fche@cygnus.com> on 27 August 1998. This has been (to date) the only newgroup seen for a hierarchy devoted to Cygnus Solutions.
Message sent to <jeroen@mlc.nl> about Collabra newgroup.
A Collabra newgroup from <news@discreet.com> on 11 Sep 1997.
Two Collabra newgroups from <news@vulcan.pnl.gov> on 27 Jan 1998, apparently for existing alt.* groups but missing the alt prefix.
A Collabra newgroup from <newsadmin@tsai.es> on 2 Oct 1997.
A Collabra newgroup from <msantand@eeppm.com> on 2 Jan 1998.
Two Collabra newgroups from <postmaster@getima.mutuagri.tm.fr> on 21 Oct 1997.
13 Collabra newgroups from <newsadm@deere.com> in September, 1998.
Two Collabra newgroups for gsm.uae on 11 May 1999 by <newsmaster@emirates.net.ae>.
A Collabra newgroup from <eddy.beliveau@hec.ca> on 10 Oct 1997.
Three Collabra newgroups from <steve_toupin@hphc.org> in Winter, 1997-1998.
Message sent to <news@sunburn.snds.com> regarding newgroup of six ifdef.* groups on 7 May 1998. All were generated using Netscape Collabra. Message bounced "User unknown".
This hierarchy was brough to tale's attention by someone who directed him to <http://support.installshield.com/nwsgrps/default.asp>. The groups are available on the news.installshield.com NNTP server, and on 8 Feb 2000, tale asked the folks at installshield.com whether they should be listed in the ISC's active file. No answer yet.
13 Collabra newgroups from <news@coho.ils.nwu.edu> in autumn 1997.
A Collabra newgroup from <newsmaster@emirates.net.ae> on 27 Oct 1998.
Two Collabra newgroups by <news@cit.org.hk> on 20 Mar 1998.
Three Collabra newgroups from <ccchen@cc.kmc.edu.tw> and <www@mail.rm.kmc.edu.tw> in Nov 1997.
Seven Collabra newgroups from <tjlanoie@infoserver.lmig.com> in February and April, 1998.
Four Collabra newgroups from <news@corp.g2networks.com> on 20 Jul 1998.
A Collabra newgroup, lk-net.test, from <t.vaquet@meier-edv.de> on 15 Jan 1998.
A Collabra newgroup from <dwang@hsa.com> on 5 Mar 1998.
Newgroup by <tecias@cyberdude.com> (Tecias von Alcadious) (Organization: Altavista personal user) on 12 Jul 1998 for o-d-n.misc.tmp.
Newgroup from Remco van de Meent <remco@oloon.xs4all.nl> on 22 Oct 1997 for oloon.test.blah.
Two Collabra newgroups from <news@afrodite.telenet-ops.be> on 11 Feb 1998.
A Collabra newgroup from <paul.pink@twi.com> for paulp.firstpost on 12 Nov 1997.
A Collabra newgroup from <postmaster@stardivision.de> for recar.service on 9 Jan 1998.
A Collabra newgroup from <lelievre.remy@getima.mutuagri.tm.fr> on 17 Nov 1997.
Seven Collabra newgroups from <news@proton.servodata.co.at> in early 1998.
A Collabra newgroup from <jwiseman@netsite.com> on 20 Jan 1998.
A Collabra newgroup from <news@news.sunyit.edu> (SUNY Utica/Rome) on 25 Sep 1997.
A Collabra newgroup from <joe_wright@compuware.com> on 10 Jul 1998.
A Collabra newgroup from <news@news.krefeld.schulen.net> on 29 Sep 1997.
A Collabra newgroup from <postmaster@messe-nt.stardiv.de> on 17 Mar 1998.
Six Collabra newgroups from <news@www.icp.pt> on 25 Nov 1997.
Three Collabra newgroups from <dmaas@tigr.org> in Nov 997.
A Collabra newgroup from <vik@netnow.net> on 17 Jun 1998.
Two Collabra newgroups for tu.private from <news@garcia.towson.edu> on 24 Nov 1997.
Three newgroups on 24 Apr 1998; query sent to <news@trw.com>, <news@news2.trw.com>.
A newgroup for twelvenet.support from <news@twelve.net> (well, "From: <spam@browser.org>", which tale did not even try) in August 1998.
A Collabra newgroup from <joe_wright@compuware.com> on 10 Jul 1998.
Two Collabra newgroups from <christoph.haas@lgm.lion.de> on 16 Dec 1997.
This hierarchy is for the University of Twente in the Netherlands. Messages sent to <newsmaster@utwente.nl> on 23 May 1996 and 30 Jun 1997 received no replies.
Two Collabra newgroups from <cmalatesta@corp.borland.com> on 5 Aug 1998.
A Collabra newgroup from <news@mercury.adc.com> on 28 Sep 1997.
"Dmitri N. Beloslioudtsev" <dnb@orgland.ru> sent two newgroups, one for zelenograd.test and one for zelenograd.test1, on 4 Sep 1998. No other newgroups have appeared for the hierarchy.

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